James Bay, Moose Factory and Moosonee, Ontario, Canada
also Treaty No. 9 in Far Northern Ontario in 1905-06
and The Nishiyuu Walkers, Young Cree Walkers from Whapmagoostui to Ottawa
April 4, 2013:
This August I'll be making a trip to James Bay, including to Moosonee and Moose Factory. So far, this page is just a gathering place for research
and learning about the history of the First Nations people from Lake Superior (Ojibway) and the Cree Nation at James Bay.
The history of this area involves aboriginal peoples and the fur trade in Canada. This geographic area is covered by
Treaty Number 9 which was negotiated in the years 1905-06 and 1929-30. Duncan Campbell Scott from
the Indian Affairs Department in Ottawa was the chief negotiator for the federal government.
Web Site of the Moose Cree First Nation
Books and other secondary sources:
The Fur Trade in Canada, by Harold A. Innis, 1930, Yale University Press
Treaty Research Report - Treaty No. 9 (1905-1906), by James Morrison, 1986. (download as .pdf)
Treaty No. 9, Making the Agreement to Share the Land in Far Northern Ontario in 1905, by John S. Long,
McGill-Queens University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7735-3761-3
Indians in the Fur Trade: Their Role as Hunters, Trappers and Middlemen in the Lands Southwest of Hudson Bay, 1660-1870 by Arthur J. Ray,
University of Toronto Press, 1974, ISBN 0-08020-6226-1
"Give Us Good Measure": An Economic Analysis of Relations Between the Indians and the Hudson's Bay Company before 1763,
by Arthur J. Ray and Donald Freeman, University of Toronto Press, 1978, ISBN 0-8020-5418-8.
Fort Timiskaming and the Fur Trade, by Elaine Allan Mitchell, University of Toronto Press, 1977, ISBN 0-8020-2234-0 (Temiskaming)
The Fur Trade and the Northwest to 1857, by E.E. Rich, McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1967, no ISBN.
April 11, 2013:
Thanks to Ellen Paul for the following; her ancestor worked for the Hudson's Bay Company:
Are you familiar with the work of Victor Lytwyn? In 1986 he wrote a monograph published by the Rupert's Land Research Center entitled
The Fur Trade of the Little North. That geographic area lies north of Lake Superior and east of Lake Winnipeg and was recognized as
a distinct area as early as 1729. If you can get a hold of a copy of it, it might help you outline the boundaries of your own research.
The Fur Trade of the Little North : Indians, Pedlars, and Englishmen, East of Lake Winnipeg, 1760-1821, by Victor P. Lytwyn,
Publisher, Winnipeg, Canada : Rupert's Land Research Centre, University of Winnipeg, 1986. (available at the Carleton University Library)
I hope you pursue the dynamic between the fur trade interests and lumbering in the 1840's. I think it
really was a pull of old commercial interests against the new. I have a copy of an 1844 letter of Thomas Taylor
to Governor George Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company in which he writes "I am sorry to say the trade in this quarters did not come
in so fast as I should wish. I came home yesterday from visiting some of our Indians up this River, some of whom instead of
hunting I found cutting logs at some of the Shanty and had not a skin of any use to give me in fact these confounded
Shantys kept the greater part of the Indians about them, employed them at various little jobs and feeds them for it,
and these scamps of Indians while they have food from the log cutters, they don't think of hunting to pay for the
debts they take from us." (1)
Source: (1) HBCA 3 M64-182 sent from Lac des Sables, Letter of Thomas Taylor to Sir George Simpson 3 Feb 1844,
(Hudson's Bay Company Archives)
Despite TT's best efforts his own son, James, threw his interests in with the shantymen, e.g. "I really was at a loss what
to think about this worthless fellow, he is not here just now, he went up the Black River (Pontiac County)
along with some Shanty men." (2)
Source: (2) HBCA 3M108 sent from Fort Coulonge, Letter of Thomas Taylor to Sir George Simpson, 16 Aug. 1855
(Hudson's Bay Company Archives)
April 18, 2013:
Fur Trader's Story, by J. W. Anderson (worked for Hudson's Bay Company for 50 years), Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1961, No ISBN.
March 25, 2013:
The Nishiyuu Walkers, a group of young, ambitious, committed and energetic members of the Cree Nation at Hudson Bay,
Quebec, are walking to Parliament Hill here and will arrive today. Originally there were seven walkers
including 18-year-old David Kawapit who organized the trek. The group had grown to 200 people by the time of
their arrival at Chelsea, Quebec, yesterday. Chelsea is in the Gatineau Valley,
just north of the cities of Ottawa and Gatineau.
2013 Walk from Whapmagoostui, northern Quebec to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Map Source: Google Maps
Keywords: Attawapiskat, Hudson Bay
See photos and story in today's Ottawa Citizen.
July 10, 2013:
On our trip to James Bay in August, we will be driving to Cochrane, Ontario and will catch the train in Cochrane to travel to Moosonee.
This final stretch of the railway was completed in 1932 and Ottawa's Chief Justice Francis Latchford laid the corner stone.
Harry McLean of Merrickville, Ontario built the final leg of the railway construction from Cochrane, Ontario to Moosonee.
Map Source: Building an Empire: "Big Pants" Harry McLean and his Sons of Martha, by Teresa Charland, page 146
June 6, 2014:
Artist Edmund Morris painting Objibway Chief Chessequim, 1906
Chapleau, Ontario, Treaty No. 9 Expedition
Source: Library and Archives, Canada,
MIKAN Number 3191846
E-mail Allan Lewis
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