John LITLE and Frances (Fannie) CHILDS
John was from County Down, Ireland and settled in the the Gatineau Valley, Quebec, Canada
Frances (Fannie) came to the Gatineau Valley in 1834 from Shropshire, England
with the William Farmer group settlement


New July 2, 2010:

Some LITLE Family History by David Smith June 2010
Thanks to Mr. David Smith who has contributed the following important and interesting material regarding his ancestors, John Litle and Frances Childs, who were early settlers in the Gatineau Valley. There are more old photos to come. His background research includes material regarding the conditions of his Scots-Irish ancestors in County Down and County Antrim at the time of their 1830's emigration to the Gatineau Valley. ... Al Over to Mr. Smith ... John Litle, the patriarch of the Litle Family of Aylwin Quebec, Canada immigrated to Canada in 1828 and settled in what was then known as Lower Canada (Quebec).
John Litle, Ireland to Gatineau Valley, Quebec, Canada
He was a farmer and merchant running the first store and post office in the village. The license to run the post office was granted in 1854 continuously until his death in 1883 along with his farm of one hundred and ninety acres. The area he settled in was Aylwin Township, which was mainly settled by Irish Protestants. He donated land from his farm to the Church and to the Orange Order. John Litle was born in the County Cavan, Ireland, in 1810 and that was an era of turmoil for the Presbyterians as both the Catholic and Anglican populations were regarded as higher forms of beings. Significant Irish History dates around the time of John Litle's birth. Interestingly Charles Dickens was born a mere two years later and if one uses their imagination it will bring to mind the time of his childhood when one looks at his novels especially "A Christmas Carol" and "David Copperfield". Although Dickens was born in England and John Litle in Ireland there were many similarities as both countries were in deep depression and paupers were the norm not the exception. Another interesting similarity is that both John and Charles sired large families and each lost a daughter in their first year. John married much later than Charles but so the children are of different ages but Charles youngest children matched up in years with John's oldest siblings. Charles Dickens visited Canada in 1842 a mere four years after the arrival of John and William Litle. Charles Dickens writing his thoughts "The impression on my mind (about Canada) has been from the first, nothing but beauty and peace" Union 1798-1801 While the 1798 rebellion was still raging the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, decided that the Irish Parliament should be closed down and that Ireland should be governed directly from Westminster. Since legislative independence had been granted in 1782, it was necessary for the Irish Parliament to vote itself out of existence. The government lost the first votes on the Union Bill early in 1799 and was forced to spend the next year cajoling and bribing members of both houses to ensure success. The viceroy, Lord Cornwallis, wrote: 'My occupation is now of the most unpleasant nature, negotiating and jobbing with the most corru ideas. They were disbanded in 1793, but managed to hide some of their arms. The United Irishmen were first founded in Belfast by Presbyterians in 1791 - the Scots-Irish. A month later another club was formed in Dublin, with Presbyterian, Catholic and Episcopalian members. The "Northern Star" newspapom the west. Most people in Ireland were indifferent: Catholics, promised full emancipation, generally were in favour and for that reason many Orange lodges petitioned against it. The Irish parliament passed the Bill in 1800 and the Act came into force on 1st January 1801. Catholic Emancipation 1801-1829 Pitt had failed to persuade the Protestant gentry to allow Catholic emancipation to be incorporated into the Union Bill. Nearly all the Penal laws had been removed by 1793 when Catholics had been given the vote. The only major remaining restriction was that Catholics could not be Members of Parliament. Pitt promised to get emancipation through Westminster after the Union became law, but he encountered the resistance of George III, who said that the proposal was 'the most Jacobinical thing I ever heard of'. Pitt resigned office in consequence. The Whigs favoured emancipation but were almost always in opposition, and bills failed to get through. A new mass movement was created by Daniel O'Connell, a Catholic lawyer who created the Catholic Association in 1823, in which the ordinary people could become members by paying a farthing a week. The government was alarmed by the Association's large open-air meetings addressed by O'Connell, despite the fact that he was a committed pacifist who had said that 'Liberty is not worth the shedding of a single drop of blood.' Photo Source: The Great Hunger, Irleand 1845-1849, page 257 Picture of Daniel O'Connell, The Great Liberator In the end it was the Irish-born victor of Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington, who as Tory Prime Minister decided to support emancipation; he had been persuaded to do so by Sir Robert Peel following the election of O'Connell in a by-election in County Clare in 1828. The Emancipation Bill was passed in 1829, but by that time the majority of Irish Catholics were opposed to the Union. Volunteers Corps Up to 1783 Protestants all over Ireland were used to forming volunteer corps whenever danger seemed to threaten. For example, in 1760 General Francois Thurot had captured Carrickfergus castle during the Seven Years War and local volunteers played a key role in forcing him to withdraw. Then in April 1778 Paul Jones, the American privateer, engaged a Royal Navy sloop in Belfast Lough and seized the vessel after an obstinate fight. The citizens of Belfast applied to Dublin castle for help but virtually no troops were available. The American War of Independence was two years old and reports of defeats kept coming in. The first corps of Volunteers was formed in Belfast and the movement spread rapidly across Ireland: a French invasion threatened and the government simply lacked the funds to activate the militia. By 1782 there were 40,000 enlisted in the Volunteers, half of them in Ulster. Strongly influenced by American ideas, though loyal to the Crown, the Volunteers demanded greater legislative freedom for the Dublin Parliament. Ulster Volunteers, meeting at the Dungannon Convention in February 1782 presented their demands. When Lord North's government fell shortly afterwards the incoming Rockingham administration conceded nearly all that was asked Most Irish Presbyterians had come originally to Ireland from Scotland to work the land for previous military service. In 1530 the Little Clan (Litle) of Scotland were driven from their homeland near the Scotland, England border by King James V because they refused to swear allegiance to the King of Scotland. They settled in with their English cousins during the remainder of the sixteenth century. pt people under heaven; I despise and hate myself every hour for engaging in such dirty work.' The parliament in Westminster had no difficulty in approving the Union; members there shared Pitt's anxiety that only direct rule could stop the French using Ireland as a base from which to attack England fr of the border and exile them to Ireland where they would be less trouble to the Crown. In 1690 many loyal Scots supported the Old Pretender, James II, a Catholic against King William III, William of Orange 1659-1702, a Protestant which resulted in numerous emigrations to the American Colonies. The Enlightenment had a strong influence on Ireland and there was a general increase in tolerance, reflected in the repeal of most of the Penal Laws against Catholics in 1778, 1782 and 1792-93. The new ideas had a particularly strong impact on the overwhelmingly Presbyterian populations of Counties of Antrim and Down. Further west, in mid-Ulster, the ancient rivalries remained very much alive. Here Catholics and Protestants were roughly equal in number and the dense population of weavers competed with each other to rent scraps of land close to the linen markets. From the early 1780s there were affrays in county Armagh between gangs, which rapidly became sectarian. The Protestants called themselves the "Peep o' Day Boys" and the Catholics formed themselves into the "Defenders". At first the Protestants were the aggressors, smashing looms, burning homes and maiming their victims. In south Armagh Catholics were the aggressors. This developed into a general sectarian warfare in the 1790s and reached a climax when a party of Defenders raided north Armagh in search of Volunteer arms. The origins of the 1798 rebellion in Ulster Two of the main influences on the people who supported the 1798 rebellion in Ulster were the War of Independence in America and the French revolution. For example, in Ballymoney, County Antrim: The first efforts of the people in America in support of their rights were hailed with joy and gladness in Ireland. In Coleraine in 1792, a sum of 600 pounds was subscribed for the French National Assembly. When traveling near Coleraine in 1796 or 1797, a Frenchman called de Latocnaye talked to a young man who spoke to him about fraternity, equality, taxation, toleration and reform of Parliament. However, the origins of the discontent can be traced back to earlier years. On 23 December 1770, angry farmers met at Templepatrick (Co. Antrim) Meeting House, and set out for Belfast to try to release a comrade, who was held on the charge of "houghing" (deliberately laming) cattle belonging to Waddell Cunningham, a ship owner and speculator. The problem was that poor tenants on the Upton estate in Templepatrick had not been able to bid high enough (against speculators like Cunningham) to renew their leases and had been evicted. The farmers were armed with crowbars, firelocks, pistols and pitchforks, and called themselves the Hearts of Steel. They burned Cunningham's house in Belfast, they were fired on by the military (who killed 5 and wounded 9), but they did force the authorities to release their comrade. The Hearts of Steel (and the Hearts of Oak in Armagh) continued this type of agrarian disturbance in 1771 and 1772, mainly because of: Heavy rents which are become so great a burden to us that we are not scarcely able to bear ... Betwixt landlord and rectors, the very marrow is screwed out of our bones. The crisis was certainly made worse by harvest failures (1770, 1771 and 1772), followed by a slump in the linen trade in 1773. The Irish parliament rushed through: An Act for the more effectual punishment of wicked and disorderly persons in Antrim, Down, Armagh, the city and county of Londonderry and county Tyrone. In about 1778, because many troops had been sent across to America, local people formed Volunteer companies to protect the country against a possible French invasion. The Volunteers became a political force with radical They survived by raiding both English and Scottish Villages and farms. In 1603 James VI of Scotland inherited the Throne of England. It made no sense to have his English subjects raiding his Scottish subjects and visa versa. King James ordered his armies to hunt down the most troublesome of these revivers on both sideser in 1792 was also founded by Presbyterians (the editor was Samuel Neilson). Captain John Nevin of Kilmoyle, Co. Antrim (member of the Secession church at Ballywatt) was one of the leaders of the local United Irishmen. He was smuggled through Coleraine in a barrel and escaped to America. An inscription on a commemorative jug reads: "To the memory of John Nevin, of Kilmoyle, who was by the Foes of Reform banished from his native home in June 1798. He lived in the State of Exile 7 years, 11 months, 8 days and departed this life in Knoxville Tennessee, USA, 19th May 1806. Much lamented by all his friends, acquaintances and Friends to their country." In Co. Armagh, there was considerable fluctuation in the linen trade, and this may have contributed to the religious rivalry there. From about 1786, the Protestant Peep O' Day Boys and Catholic Defenders were involved in violent attacks. The Defenders were well organized, and also had nationalist political objectives. They became allied to the United Irishmen, although the objectives of the two did not entirely coincide. The Orange Order was formed in 1795, after the Battle of the Diamond. The Defenders and the Orange Order brought increased religious tension as they spread though other counties. Many Catholic weavers in County Antrim were forced to leave their homes, being told to "betake themselves to hell or Connaught". In April 1798, Camdem wrote that: The most alarming feature of the movement is the appearance of the present contest becoming a religious one. In fact, the picture, which emerges, is a confusing one. There were several groups involved in the rebellion, and several others opposing it. The objectives of the rebels ranged from those who wanted a republic, those who wanted reform, and those who appear to have been most concerned about economic grievances. Origins of the Reformed Presbyterian Church The origins of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Ireland are bound up with the coming of Scottish settlers to Ulster in the early 17th century. Most were Presbyterians and they soon made a major impact on the religious life of the province. They were naturally sympathetic towards their co-religionists in Scotland, who drew up a National Covenant in 1638 in protest against the autocratic policies of Charles I who in 1643, entered into the Solemn League and Covenant with the English Parliament. One aim of this covenant was `to work for the reformation of religion in the three kingdoms' and it was warmly approved and signed by many of the Ulster Scots. The Revolution Settlement of 1690 was welcomed by most Ulster Presbyterians as a vindication of their struggle for religious freedom. A minority, however, objected to the disregarding of the Covenants and the absence of any specific recognition of the kingship of Jesus Christ. These `Covenanters', ancestors of modern Reformed Presbyterians, stood apart from the Presbyterian Church and began to hold separate meetings for fellowship. They were dependent on visits from Scottish ministers from 1696 until 1757. In 1763 a `Reformed Presbytery' was formed and rapid growth led to the formation of a Synod in 1811. Adoption of Union Jack 1801 During the American fight for independence, the Irish had raised a force of United Volunteers, announcing their loyalty to the Crown, and their influence was used to win an independent Irish Parliament. However, this caused bloody clashes between Catholics and Protestants, and the Prime Minister of the time, William Pitt, concluded that direct rule form London was the only solution. After bribery of the Commons and gentry, Britain and Ireland were formally united, with seats for 100 Irish members in the Commons and thirty-two peers in the Lords. The red saltire of St Patrick was incorporated in the Union flag to give the present flag of the United Kingdom (only properly called the Union Jack when used aboard. This was the Land to which John Litle was born and at eighteen years of age he emigrated from, with a brother William. Very little is known about their background except for the fact that they were from the County Cavan and were Presbyterian. There are three parishes in County Cavan which have Litle files, Castlerahan, Knockbride and Drumgoon. It is assumed that they had been educated as John could read and possessed beautiful handwriting. Family lore states the two brothers separated around the Ottawa area. John traveled up the Gatineau River and William heading in another direction. The two brothers never met again to our knowledge. William may have settled in Upper Canada perhaps Gloucester (Ontario) and another family story is that William may have returned to Ireland and then came back to Canada at a later date. They were around the Ottawa area when Lieutenant Colonel John By, who gave his name to Ottawa's earlier incarnation, Bytown, and is often credited as Ottawa's founder although the settlement predates him. He was responsible for the construction of the Rideau Canal, built between 1826 and 1832 to allow Canadian boats to travel between Montreal and Kingston at a safe distance from the sometimes-hostile United States. Queen Victoria's decision in 1857 to make this former sleepy lumber town the permanent capital was largely based on this geography. It was also a classic Canadian compromise between competing claims to the capital by larger cities. After Confederation in 1867, Ottawa took on the role of federal capital. Malaria during the early settlement days: Among the many diseases that ravaged workers during the building of the Rideau Canal, three of the worst were dysentery, small pox and malaria. Malaria, extremely rare today in North America, is a mystery disease to many. It has been suggested by some that malaria was unique to the Rideau, perhaps brought by the soldiers working on the Rideau who had previously been stationed in tropical climates where malaria was rampant. This isn't so; a temperate form of malaria was here both before and after the building of the Rideau Canal. Malaria has been known for centuries, it was first described by early Egyptians in the third millennium B.C. Malaria is a parasite, plasmodium, of which four species are known. The disease is transmitted to humans by a particular type of mosquito (varieties of the Anopheles mosquito that will bite more than once). It was originally thought to be caused by bad air (hence "mal" - "aria" - literally "bad" - "air"), usually blamed on bad smelling air, such as that coming off a swamp or marsh. During the time of construction of the Rideau it was referred to a "Lake Fever" or "Swamp Fever". The life cycle of the parasite begins as a sporozoite that is carried by an Anopheles mosquito and injected into a human. The sporozoite heads into the liver and reproduces asexually. There are few symptoms at this time. When sufficient new sporozoites have been produced, they return to the blood stream, penetrating red blood cells. They reproduce asexually again, forming merozoites. Eventually these infected blood cells burst, releasing the merozoites. As this stage continues, more and more blood cells are destroyed, and the classic chills and fever symptoms start to appear in the victim. The cycle at which the chills and fever occurs, usually 48 hours in temperate malaria and 72 hours in tropical malaria represents the cycle in which the merozoites burst out of the red blood cells. It is at this stage that Anopheles mosquitoes can pick up the parasite when taking blood from a host with the disease. Once back in the mosquito, the merozoites develop into male and female gametocytes. These gametocytes fuse in the mosquitoes gut and produce sporozoites, which head into the mosquito's salivary glands, ready to infect another host (human). The type of mosquito in Eastern Canada and the U.S. that transmits malaria is the Anopheles quadrimaculatus. In the spring it lays eggs singly onto the surface of standing water, usually small ponds and puddles. When the larva hatch and form into mosquitoes they head out to find a suitable meal, preferring large mammals, particularly humans. The mosquito usually searches out a suitable host to feed on in early evening, heading indoors, reaching a peak of feeding activity in late evening and early morning. When feeding on a human that has merozoites in its bloodstream, the cycle starts. Soon this mosquito has sporozoites in its saliva, ready to infect the next human it dines on, and the cycle starts all over. In a temperate area such as the Rideau, it was tertian malaria, Plasmodium Vivax, which was the main culprit. It would spend 9 months or longer incubating in the liver, allowing it to survive the harsh winters by staying inside a human until the mosquitoes were out and biting again. Groupings of people, such as in the canal construction camps, certainly helped the spread of the disease, allowing mosquitoes to easily transmit the disease from one worker to another. Also, construction areas provided lots of clean water egg-laying areas (small puddles, etc.) for the mosquito. No one escaped from malaria, everyone from the highest-ranking officer to the wives and children of immigrant labourers all suffered from it. There are no definitive records regarding how many deaths due to malaria occurred during the building of the Rideau Canal. One educated guess (Passfield) is that upwards of 500 men (excluding women and children) died as a result of malaria contracted while working on the Rideau Canal. In the 1820s and 1830s the only known cure, or at least a medicine that could mitigate some of the symptoms, was Quinine. Quinine bark had been used since the late 1600s to treat malaria, but it was the isolation of quinoline alkaloid in 1820, named Quinine, that provided a highly potent antimalarial drug. At the time of the building of the Rideau Canal in 1827-32, it was still quite rare and very expensive; very few could afford to use it. Long after the building of the Rideau, it was recognized that mosquitoes, not bad air, were the real cause of the spread of malaria. Efforts were made to avoid mosquito bites and large-scale mosquito eradication programs were launched (such as oiling standing water to prevent the larva from hatching into adults). Still, it wasn't until about 1900 that malaria was essentially eradicated from Ontario. It still exists today in North America, although it is quite rare with only a few hundred cases being reported each year, and none within living memory on the Rideau. For a first hand account of what malaria on the Rideau was like, read the following excerpt from John MacTaggart's book, Three Years In Canada: Excerpt from "Three Years In Canada" by John MacTaggart, 1829. Volume II, pages 16 - 21 "Canada has a large, share of disease, like most other countries: it is not so very fine and healthy, as has been reported. There are many hale old people in it, to be sure; but such persons are to be met with even in Batavia, the most sickly town on the earth. If we had no occasion to expose ourselves to the weather, it is probable that we should find ourselves enjoying better health than we commonly do; but who can keep from exposing themselves? We must go forth on our business, whatever that may be. The majority of mankind must struggle to live, in order to die. If we can afford to go out and come in when we please, I dare say there is not any more to be said against sickness in this climate, than in England; but if we have to wander in the wilderness, amongst swamps, as many have-to sleep amongst them, and be obliged to drink bad water - the Dysentery, Fever and Ague, and all manner of bilious fevers, are sure to succeed one another. The Fever and Ague of Canada are different, I am told, from those of other countries: they generally come on with an attack of bilious fever, dreadful vomiting, pains in the back and loins, general debility, loss of appetite, so that one cannot even take tea, a thing that can be endured by the stomach in England when nothing else can be suffered. After being in this state for eight or ten days, the yellow jaundice is likely to ensue, and then fits of trembling - these come on some time in the afternoon, mostly, with all. For two or three hours before they arrive, we feel so cold that nothing will warm us; the greatest heat that can be applied is perfectly unfelt; the skin gets dry, and then the shaking begins. Our very bones ache, teeth chatter, and the ribs are sore, continuing thus in great agony for about an hour and a half; we then commonly have a vomit, the trembling ends, and a profuse sweat ensues, which lasts for two hours longer. This over, we find the malady has run one of its rounds, and start out of the bed in a feeble state, sometimes unable to stand, and entirely dependent on our friends (if we have any) to lift us on to some seat or other. This is the most prevalent disorder: sometimes it proves fatal, but not generally so by any means. It leaves, however, dregs of various kinds behind it, which often end in dropsies, consumptions, &c. Those who have had it once will most likely have a touch of it every year. A moist, hot summer fosters it very much; and when we fairly take it, we are rendered useless for any active business for many months. The sulphate of Quinine, a preparation from bark, is what the doctors administer for the cure of this wearisome distemper: it seems to be a very potent medicine, but being very dear, poor people are at a loss to procure it. The Indians are never troubled with any thing of the sort. There is a kind of ague, too, the patient does not shake with, termed the Dumb Ague: this is very difficult to cure, and mostly affects those advanced in years. The Lake Fever prevails at Kingston, York, and other towns and villages on the borders of the Great Lakes. It is often fatal, and the nature of it as yet seems not well understood by the faculty. In the summer of 1828 the sickness in Upper Canada raged like a plague; all along the banks of the lakes, nothing but languid fevers; and at the Rideau Canal few could work with fever and ague; at Jones Falls and Kingston Mills, no one was able to carry a draught of water to a friend; doctors and all were laid down together. And people take a long time to recover amid these hot swamps; it is not two or three weeks ill, and then up and well again, but so many months. The Ottawa is conceived to be a very healthy river; the people on its banks are seldom or never sick; and the Lower Province is much freer from distemper than the Upper. Stumps in a certain state of decay are said to be dreadfully obnoxious to health." Excerpt from Pioneer Notes; It may not be improper here to notice the interesting river Gatineau, which flows from some lakes far in the interior, traverses Hull, and falls into the Ottawa, in the western front of the township of Templeton. This wide, and in the upper parts rapid river, is navigable for steamboats, nearly 5 miles from its mouth, then becomes rapid for about 15 miles, turning several mills, and thence is navigable for canoes, &c. it is said for 300 miles, passing through an interesting vale full of natural riches, and abounding in views of the wildest and most romantic scenery, and it is probable that at no very distant day, the district will be explored, and settlements established on the banks of this river beyond the rapids or falls, some of which are stated to be 100 feet in height. "John Litle travelled up this Gatineau River a distance of fifty miles to the area which became Aylwin Quebec and started the process of land clearing for his farm" John Litle married a Frances Fannie Childs in Canada in April 13,1848 and they had 12 children. Francis Fannie Childs was born in Shropshire England an Anglican (Wesleyan Methodist) in 1826 married in1848. They cleared the land and homesteaded in the Aylwin Township in the County of Ottawa in the Province of Canada and were deeded the crown land property in1866 for one hundred and seventy eight acres for which he paid one hundred and six dollars and eighty cents. The name on the deed was John Litle "Merchant". Many farmers worked the land in this era without getting a deed until other people started to move into the area and claimed the un-deeded land Below is am excerpt from the publication "Up the Gatineau" which documents the arrival of the Childs family to this area. "Up The Gatineau" In the 1830's immigrants were catching wind of the opportunities for settlement in the Gatineau region; families came in large groups for support. William Farmer headed one such group. William Farmer came from Bridgenorth, Shropshire, in the year 1834. The entourage Farmer brought with him included his family and a housekeeper, a lawyer, a tutor, a millwright, a waiter and his family of seven, a gardener and seven family members, and a general purpose man with his nine relatives, in addition to the livestock and financial resources to support the fifty-six immigrants, that was typical of a wealthy immigrant of that time. Despite his retreat to Upper Canada in 1846, William Farmer's endeavour resulted in the naming of Farmer's Rapids where his settlement landed on the Gatineau There appears to have been some obscurity about the origin of the name Farmer's Rapids, those falls in the Gatineau River upon which the plant of the Gatineau Power Company (now Hydro-Quebec) is located, about four miles from its confluence with the Ottawa. The main facts in this short paper (see credit below) were assembled by one of the Farmer family in the previous generation and presented to the Power Company at the time of its development of that part of the river for its generation of hydroelectric power. The man who gave his name to this historical site was William Farmer, the author's own great-grandfather, who came from Bridgenorth, Shropshire, in the year 1834. The family is of considerable antiquity in that part of England and there is in the family archives a record of a will dated 9th of September 1485 and probated on the 8th of November following. The lineage of the family is clearly traced back to that time. Many interesting details of the family history have been preserved, but the subject of the paper presented here is William Farmer, the sixth generation of that name to occupy Brockton and New House. He was born on February 4th, 1794, and was baptized at Sutton Maddock, England, the next day; he died at Brockton House, Ancaster, Ontario, on March 7th, 1880, aged 86 years. He was the father of twelve children, seven sons and five daughters, all of who lived to a good old age. The last to survive was the youngest daughter who died in British Columbia in June 1934 at the age of 92. Seven of the children, five by his first wife and two by his second were born in England. The last five of his children were born in Canada, at Farmer's Rapids on the Gatineau River. William Farmer possessed quite large estates in England, but in the month of March 1834 he sold the greater part of his property and began actual preparations for leaving the home that the Farmer family had been born in, and lived and died in, for over 250 years. When these preparations were complete, William Farmer with his wife and seven children left Brockton Court, where his mother w as still residing, on the 6th of June 1834. Four fine grey horses drew the large stagecoach, which conveyed the family to Birkenhead, near Liverpool. It left for Birkenhead at nine o'clock in the morning and arrived at sundown. The vessel chartered exclusively by Mr. Farmer for his voyage out to Canada was the Kingston of Liverpool under the command of a Captain Willis, a Yorkshire man. The ship drew about 430 tons, had nine square sails, and was fitted out very comfortably. She had a cabin with berths, a sitting room, and a dining room on the deck. Mr. Farmer engaged and brought with him a colony of ten families, a total of forty-five souls, in addition to himself and his own family with general house-servant, housemaid, and nurse. The heads of these families included various journeymen and craftsmen as well as a lawyer and a tutor. Mr. Farmer also brought some valuable livestock. For example, there was the famous dark grey mottled Clydesdale stallion called 'Briton'-four years old-and Briton's mother, a grey Clydesdale mare bought in Scotland. There were also an iron-grey mare, two Durham bulls, two Hereford bulls, six cows (Durham, Hereford, and Highland Scottish), two Southdown rams, fourteen Southdown ewes, one Leicester ram, thirteen Leicester ewes, one Berkshire boar, one Shropshire boar, nine sows, ten dogs (pointers, bull terriers, and a fox terrier), besides a number of game cocks and hens. Mr. Farmer provided adequate food and fresh water for all this stock. Moreover, on stormy days the horses were all suspended in strong canvas slings with pulley blocks from the beams of the decks above. Not a single animal was lost on the voyage. They sailed from Liverpool early in the morning on Waterloo Day, the 18th of June 1834, and arrived at Quebec at sundown on Friday, the 8th of August so that the voyage took fifty-one days. This whole undertaking by one man must be unique in Canadian annals; it was recorded in the Québec newspaper from which it was copied into the Montreal Gazette where it was published on the 26th of August 1834. The packages which Mr. Farmer brought from Shropshire to Canada would take too much space to enumerate and details of their contents would perhaps set antique collectors' eyes agog were they to be described. But most of the articles are still in the family, as well as invoices for most of the items specially purchased for furnishing the Canadian home. Besides forty-two cases of household effects only, all labelled and numbered, there were coils of rope, tools and implements, barrels, bags of barley, peas and wheat, several barrels of glass of all kinds for table use, and many other articles. Later Mr. Farmer sent to Coalport in Shropshire for additional supplies. There were five or six dozens of champagne glasses besides dozens of wine glasses of various styles and sizes, finger bowls and decanters. Barrels of china contained no less than six Coalport dinner sets, two dozen meat dishes, vegetable dishes, gravy boats, fruit and fancy dishes, sugar bowls, cream pitchers, cups and saucers, six large beer pitchers, and so on. As a sample of the contents of some of the forty-two cases: case No. 1 contained curtains, sideboard and cellaret, two beds, bolsters, pillows, linen, a clock-case, blankets, waistcoats, clothes, tags, and bed quilts. The clock-case was for an 8-day clock that had been in the family for several generations and is in fact still in their possession. The sideboard and cellaret had been made by the order of Lord Bradford and bought by William Farmer; these are among the items still in the family. Case No. 11 held bureau, looking glasses, old and new scraps, clothes, pictures, and clockworks. The bureau belonged originally to the Yates family of Higford, the first Mrs. Farmer having been a Yates. It came into the possession of the Farmer family in 1827 and is believed to be still there somewhere. Case No. 12 was labelled "Mrs. Farmer's bureau, and clothing to be used by her on first landing in Canada." On August the 8th, as mentioned above, the "Kingston" made fast at Québec and on the following day a complete transfer of passengers, livestock, and cargo was made to the steamer "Canada"-Captain Douglas in command. William Farmer's diary states that she was the largest steamer on the main line running at that time on the St. Lawrence between Montrêal and Québec. She left Québec late in the evening of the 9th for Sorel and arrived there about noon on Sunday, the 10th of August. At Sorel, Mr. Farmer rented a house on the Green for himself and family; the other families were boarded at various f armhouses in the vicinity. William bore the expenses of every individual from the time of leaving England until the year he left the Gatineau. The livestock was sent to the farm of one Alfred Nelson at a place called Pottenduer, near Sorel. This place does not appear on present-day maps of the area, but perhaps vestiges of it still remain. Thus located, all remained until the 23rd of November; but during this period a fire destroyed a great part of Sorel, including the house occupied by Mr. Farmer and his family. The whole party left Sorel on November 23rd and on the night of the 26th they arrived at "the falls on the Gatineau River in the Township of Hull, Lower Canada, about six miles from Bytown." On that very night, both the Ottawa and Gatineau Rivers froze over and there was an abrupt end to all navigation. The property to be occupied contained about 2,400 acres of wood and clearing, with a house "of extraordinary size, sufficiently large to hold all the people we brought out from England with us." This house was located about 300 yards from and directly opposite, the first drop in the waterfalls. While Mr. Farmer was at Sorel, Mr. Tiberius Wright, son of Philemon, sent his agent to call. Philemon Wright had come from New England in 1800 and had settled on the north shore of the Ottawa where he founded the town of Hull and began the exploitation of the timber wealth of the district. A cousin of the author, who provided most of the details of this resume, was of the opinion that it was the influence of Tiberius Wright which persuaded Mr. William Farmer to take up the site on the Gatineau since known as Farmer's Rapids. The author now feels there is every reason to believe, however, that the site had been selected before the party left England and recommended by Mr. Henry Devey; he was a brother of the second Mrs. Farmer and a senior official in the Colonial Office at the time. It hardly seems reasonable to suppose that anyone would make such very elaborate preparations involving so many men, women, and children without any definite idea of where he and they were going. During 1835 Mr. Farmer erected a large sawmill, and during 1836 he built a flour and gristmill nearby. At this time he had 100 employees, in addition to all those who had accompanied him from the Old Country. In 1843, he built a dam and completed a new house, which he occupied on the 24th of January 1844. Spring floods caused severe damage to the dams, but necessary repairs were finished in time to start log cutting up the river during the winter of 1844. Deals were sold for 7 pounds 10 pence ($30 Halifax currency) per standard hundred in the year 1845. Lucien Brault, the eminent historian, refers to a canal 3 miles long, built presumably to get the logs round the rapids to the sawmill, but this mention occurs in his remarks on the Gilmour Company. (See article by David Smith regarding curling in the Ottawa area and the influence of Alan Gilmour). The author's relatives have stated that it was Mr. Farmer who built this canal-or that at any rate he did build an extensive canal, and that, incidentally, he lost a good deal of money in doing so. The author owns a fine pencil drawing of the Gilmour sawmill, made by William Farmer's son of the same name. In 1846, the whole property-mills, logs, dams, timber limits, and so on-was turned over to Alonzo Wright, Philemon's grandson, who continued operations at the site for a year or two. In 1855 William Farmer moved to Upper Canada and ultimately to the village of Ancaster, near Hamilton, Ontario, in Wentworth County at the head of Lake Ontario. Names of those who came to Canada with William Farmer in 1834 Jemima Rudkins-housekeeper and nurse William Dukes-a lawyer Arthur Vickers-tutor, a Cambridge student Thomas Barnfield-a miller and wheelwright Mr. Williams-groom and waiter; Mrs. Williams, his wife; George, Joseph and James Williams, his sons, and three daughters Amos Bonell - a millwright; Mrs. Bonell his wife; Catharine, George, William, Fanny and Thomas Bonell William Furnival-blacksmith (Mrs. Bonell's brother) Samuel Langford-gardener; Mrs. Langford, his wife; Mary, Samuel, William, Richard, Annie and Bessie Langford Thomas Childs-a general purpose man; Mrs. Childs, his wife Sarah Elizabeth; Bessie, Thomas, Richard and James Parton were the natural children of Sarah Elizabeth from a previous marriage to Richard Parton who were Mr. Childs' stepchildren. Peter, Fanny, Mary and Annie Childs were his natural children. This is the first record of Francis Fanny Childs who became the wife of John Litle, April 13, 1848. James Green-a mason; Mrs. Green, his wife Ellen Smith-a general house-servant (Green's sister-in-law) William Adderley-a sawyer; Mrs. Adderley, his wife and three young children Hi Dave: I was re-reading an old book written by John Gourlay Entitled "History of the Ottawa Valley". It is badly written; he jumps all over the geographic area and dates very little. I found a reference to the "Aylwin" Family apparently located at Hurdmans Bridge. It states that one brother was a politician and a judge seen frequently in the Aylmer Court before the appointment of McKord. Apparently there was a political power group influenced by the Wrights (Tiberius, Ruggles, Alonzo & later Philemon) whose future was in the lumber industry and they insured their future by replacing a lot of strategic people. Of course Tiberius Wright was an M.P. for a long time too. !! (It was said Mr. Wright drew 63,000 acres in all from the Government, they all had Big Houses. Nice work.) Aylwin Presbyterian church was served by a student in the summer and in winter by an itinerant on a monthly basis. John Gourlay & Rev Corbett made their first visit north of Wakefield in 1856. One passage: "The Little's beside the Aylwin church are very substantial farmers and generous, kind, obliging men. One of their sisters, an industrious young woman, is married to Mr. Moody, a connection of the Moody's in this city and Nepean. (Moodie Drive, ex Reeve of Nepean Township, Aubrey Moodie). In our excursion nearly 40 years ago we started up in a bark canoe and landing on the point at a bend or curve in the stream, we saw a whole leet of both bark and log canoes, after the service in a little log church Mr. Thomas Mulligan (also from County Cavan, Ireland) invited all present to dine with him ," (Not sure whether the log church is Aylwin or Picanock that's a flaw in his writing.) Somewhere I have a photo copy of the pages covering Aylwin, Kazabazua and Danford & will snail mail them to you. A copy of the book might be in the Library or the National Archives; I know it is out of print. Several pages in my book are missing so I have no print date. I think it was done as a report. It is still worthwhile reading. Lois. All John and Francis Fannie Litle's children were born in Aylwin Quebec. Their first child was a daughter named Sarah Didamia Litle born January 31, 1849. Sarah married a gentleman by the name of David West about 1867 and they had five children. Sarah died about 1935. 2 Sarah Didamia Litle b. 31 Jan 1849 died ABT 1935 married ABT 1867 David West
Sarah Didamia Litle, Ireland to Gatineau Valley, Quebec, Canada West, David, Ireland to Gatineau Valley, Quebec, Canada
Five children; Francis Fannie, Minnie Grant, Jennie, Edna Mae and John. Francis Fannie West married. Fred Pearl and their three children are Clancy West, Courtland and Mary Jane. Minnie Grant West was born January 31, 1878 and she married Phillip Sallee born February 12, 1873 they raised five children. Dorothy Lucille Sallee married Howard Elwell and they had a daughter Susan Sallee Elwell Edna Vivian Sallee married James March and they have two children Jean and Bob Phyllis Evamay Sallee was born December, 21, 1909 and married John K. Law born December 25, 1899 and died in March of 1953 They had two sons John Philip Law was born September 7, 1937, John was raised in California, USA, by his mother and became an actor. He has acted in more than forty films and is perhaps best remembered for his role a Sinbad. John has one daughter---------. The second son Tom Law born May 23, 1940 married Lisa Bachelis. Frank West Sallee married 1937 Betty Bennett and they raised two children. Ralph Litle Sallee married 1945 Harriett Ragan. Jennie West m. Lee Goode Edna Mae West married John Groover and they produced two daughters. John West, no information on John ... David Smith (much more to come when I get a round tuit ... Al)

E-mail David Smith, Alexa Pritchard, Ken Armstrong and Al Lewis

Back to Bytown or Bust - History and Genealogy in the Ottawa, Canada, area