Kilcavan, County Wicklow, Ireland in the Nineteenth Century


New August 23, 2009:

Nineteenth Century, Kilcavan    

By Joseph A. Kenny, Omaha NE- USA

 

Over the centuries, the land of Kilcavan attracted people from all around because of its rolling hills, fertile soil, and a slate quarry.   In the nineteenth century the area was in the control of Lord Fitzwilliam and was originally leased to only Protestants.  Here is the description that was given in 1728-33;

 

Mr. WATERHOUSE HOLDINGS  447 acres

On this land is a large stoned walled slated house and out houses with orchard and garden and nursery of fine young ash not yet planted out & some enclosures & plantations in the hedges.  A slate quarry of use to the estate.  [i]

 

2. Mr. WRIGHTS HOLDING 138 acres

On Wrights part, a clay & stone walled slated house, small orchard, some young trees in the garden not yet planted out & some few about the house. [ii]

 

In the old maps that were viewed, dating back to 1728, this whole area that is mentioned above, is referred to as Kilcavan and on these holdings, before 1790, lived Nicholas Kempston and William Hume.  Before the 1778 Gardiner Act,[iii]  the Protestant landlords were given leases but the Catholics were still refused leases under the Penal Laws that lasted from WILLIAM of ORANGE.    So when Kempston and Hume died prior to 1808, this was a good thing for the Catholics that were in this area because it gave them a chance to get a lease from the Fitzwilliam holdings in Kilcavan. [iv]

 

In the Hearth Money Roll for County Wicklow dated 1669 [v] we can see many Irish families had residence in the surrounding area, possibly hundreds of years before they finally got their own leases, so prior to the Gardiner Act, the Protestant Head Tenants in the Fitzwilliam Estate sub-divided their holdings into plots amongst thousands of Irish Catholics.  In other words neither the Catholics nor Protestants owned the land but this was a way they were able to get around the Penal Laws.[vi]  One of the families already in this area before 1740 was the Kennys.   They were one of the fortunate families to get a lease in 1808 and lived in a section of Kilcavan that became known as Kennystown.  The earliest reference to the name “Kennystown” was seen in 1808 and the earliest Kenny name recorded in manuscripts dated between 1733-48 was Mogue (Moses) Kenny with his family .  Then later in 1808, James Kenny with his family receive an actual lease.  

 

During the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century other Irish Catholics settled into this area; In 1827 it showed the following people on these plots in Kennystown:

 

PLOT ONE: [vii]

BARTHOLOMEW KENNY aged 49 in 1827 with his wife Nancy Farrell  aged 42  with 3 sons and 4 daughters with them in 1827.  He was a farmer in 1827 on 19 acres 1 rod .  He was called a Quarryman in 1839.

PATRICK MULLERY  age 29 with wife aged 27, 3 daughters , Labourer

ELIZABETH KENNY  (Widow) age 59 years, on 2 rods.

JOHN KENNY  age 46 Years, Labourer .

JAMES CARNEY, age 26 with wife age 40, 1 son, 3 daughters, Labourer.

 

PLOT TWO : [viii]

JAMES age, bef.1745- and died bef.1827

BARTHOLOMEW KENNY aged 60 and his wife Anne Breen  aged 57,  on 34 acres, 10 Perch with 3 sons and 3 daughters. He was called a Mason.

RICHARD KENNY aged 32 with his wife Mary Cahill, aged 20. On 11 acres.  A labourer and farmer.

THOMAS KENNY aged 58 and his wife aged 60. On 11 acres. They had 2 daughters with them in 1827. He was a farmer.

PHILIP KENNY aged 24 and his wife Ellen aged 22. They had 4 acres and 2 daughters lived with them in 1839. He was a LABOURER.

In 1839 PHILIP KENNY aged 34 and his wife Ellen aged 32 lived here on  5 acres 3 rod with THOMAS BALF aged 36 and his wife Sarah Kenny aged 28 on 11 acres 2 rod living beside him. They had 3 daughters with them in 1839 and he was called a LABOURER.

JAMES DOYLE age 36 with wife age 40, Labourer on 3 Acres 1 Rod

 

PLOT THREE [ix]

EDWARD KAVANGH AND JAMES MURPHY 26 acres 1 Rod , 22 Perch

EDWARD KAVANAGH age 50 with wife age 40, 4 sons, 3 daughters, on 12 acres 3 rods 10 perch.

MARGARET KAVANAGH AGED 80

BARTHOLOMEW KENNY ON 13 acres 12 perch, Farmer  "DOES NOT RESIDE IN THIS, ADJOINS"

 

PLOT  FOUR :[x]

PHILIP KENNY,  son of Philip Sr.   (Taken over before 1827 by Edw .Balfe) 50 Acres

WIDOW KENNY aged 57 on 1 acre, with one daughter with her in 1827

EDWARD BALF age 54 with wife age 52, on 37 acres, 2 sons,  Farmer.

MICHAEL HANDRICK age 36 with wife Margo Balfe age 30,  on 12 acres, 3 daughters , Broguemaker

MARY BALF WIDOW, 50 years, 3 sons, 3 daughters.

JAMES SUMMERS, age 35 with wife age 27, labourer.

.

PLOT FIVE  [xi]

PATRICK KENNY but taken over before 1827 by WILKINS?  13 Acres 1 rod  39 perch.

 

Also in Kennystown on other plots were:

JOHN LEE,- widow BYRNE,- MAURICE DALTON,- HUGH BYRNE,-

GARRETT BYRNE,- widow BOLGER,- DENIS KAVANGH, - MATHEW HUNT,

all with families. [xii]

 

When the Leases were granted in 1808 to those in Kilcavan, the lease was always constructed as follows: :

 

INDENTURE BETWEEN THE RIGHT HON. WILLIAM WENTWORTH EARL OF FITZWILLIAM AND RIGHT HON. CHARLES WILLIAM WENTWORTH FITZWILLIAM COMMONLY CALLED VISCOUNT MILTON THE SON AND HEIR OF THE SAID EARL OF THE FIRST PART AND ...................................WHEREBY THE SAID EARL AND VISCOUNT MILTON APPOINTS DEMISES AND GRANTS UNTO SAID ............. ALL THAT DWELLING HOUSE TENEMENTS AND ALSO ALL THOSE SEVERAL CLOSES INCLOSURES OR PARCELS OF INCLOSED LAND ARABLE MEADOW AND PASTURE GROUND THERETO BELONGING PART OF THE LANDS OF ......................... CONTAINING WITH THE SOIL UNDERNEATH THE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO A SURVEYED ADMEASUREMENT THEREOF LATELY MADE BY MR. CALEB BROOKSBAND..........................( BE THE SAME MORE OR LESS) WHICH SAID PREMISES WERE

( AMONGST OTHER TENEMENTS) LATE IN LEASE TO................. AND SINCE TO ........................ AND ARE NOW IN THE POSSESSION TENURE HOLDING OR OCCUPTATION OF SAID ................... TOGETHER ETC . TO HOLD FROM .................... FOR AND DURING THE NATURAL LIFE OF ..................... FOR 21 YEARS TO RUN THEREWITH AT AND UNDER THE NONRESIDENCE RENT OR SUM OF #................... and #...........TO PLANT ........ FOREST AND ............... APPLETREES. LIBERTY TO COPICE .................  [xiii]

 

If you add the following names and conditions to this LEASE then you get what all those at KILCAVAN received as proof of lease :

LAND OWNER-, TENANTS NAME - AND DATE

Part of KILCAVAN

AMOUNT OF  ACRES, RODS AND PERCHS

late in lease to NICHOLAS KIMPTON AND WILLIAM HUME both deceased.

In the natural life of USUALLY THE YOUNGEST CHILD

#15 residence and #10 to plant, i.e. 100 forest trees and 20 apple trees. [xiv]

Liberty to copice CERTAIN AMOUNT OF LAND i.e. 3 ACRES. 

 

Here is a list of married couples that had children in Kennystown between the years 1832 and 1855. [xv]

More information can be found at www.kennytree.com

 

Date of Baptism    Surname        Father          Maiden          Mother                Place

 

1835 Sep 14

Balf

Thomas

Kenny

Sally

Kennystown

1840 Sep 23

Balfe

Michael

Kealy

Catherine

Kennystown

1842 Apr 3

Balfe

Nick

kealy

Kath

Kennystown

1845 Feb 10

Balfe

Thomas

Kenny

Sally

Kennystown

1837 Apr 24

Birch

Terry

Doran

Mary

Kennystown

1846 Jan 23

Blake

Thomas

Nowlan

Ellen

Kennystown

1843 Oct 25

Carton

Denis

Hickey

Bes

Kennystown

1833 Dec11

Doyle

John

Kenny

Kitty

Kennystown

1833 Mar 24

Handrick

Michael

Balf

Mary

Kennystown

1855 Aug 29

Jacob

 

Jacob

Jane

Kennystown

1844 Apr 24

Kehoe

Denis

Handrick

Mary

Kennystown

1840 Dec 14

Kenny

Maurice

Nolan

Ellen

Kennystown

1836 Mar 30

Kenny

Phil

Kenny

Ellen

Kennystown

1842 Aug 5

Kenny

Richard

Cahil

May

Kennystown

1834 Sep 13

Kilbride

John

Kenny

Rose

Kennystown

1838 Apr 10

Loughlin

Phil

Hickey

Mary

Kennystown

 

 

1856 Dec 30

Blake

John

Kavanagh

Joanna

Kilavan

1854 Aug 9

Leveston

William

Nowlan

Bridget

Kilcanes

1840 Nov 7

Bennett

Dick

Doyle

Biddy

Kilcavan

1847 Jan 10

Brandy

Patrick

Trainery

Ellen

KIlcavan

1850 Mar 14

Brenity

Thomas

Byrne

Lisa

Kilcavan

1837 Jul 24

Brennan

Jas

Byrne

Margo

Kilcavan

1840 Jul 19

Brennan

John

Byrne

Mary

KIlcavan

1841 Aug 23

Byrne

James

Doyle

Kitty

Kilcavan

1841 May 24

Byrne

Matt

Murphy

Rose

Kilcavan

1833 Jan 1

Byrne

Michael

Kenny

Mary

Kilcavan

1841 SEp 21

Byrne

Michael

Conneran

Anne

Kilcavan

1852 Aug 30

Cahill

Moses

Kenny

Elen

Kilcavan

1854 Jan 26

Cahill

Moses

Nowlan

Ellen

Kilcavan

1859  Oct 16

Clare

Farrell

Walker

Mary

Kilcavan

1840 Jan 22

Clare

John

Hart

Jenny

Kilcavan

1834 Feb 26

Collins

John

Byrne

Biddy

Kilcavan

1862 May 16

Collins

John

Kinsella

Anne

Kilcavan

1853 May 29

Conway

Thomas

Neill

Margaret

Kilcavan

1854 Mar 19

Cuff

James

Roney

Margaret

Kilcavan

1840 May 20

Doyle

James

Kenny

Catherine

Kilcavan

1841 Jul 4

Doyle

Justin

Nowlan

Ann

Kilcavan

1855 Jan 28

Edwards

Moses

Cullen

Mary

Kilcavan

1852 Oct 30

Farden

Michael

Byrne

Ann

Kilcavan

1840 Jan 30

Farrell

Peter

English

Anne

Kilcavan

1845 Feb 2

Fitzpatrick

William

Doran

Sarah

Kilcavan

1841 Aug 4

Foster

James

Balfe

Margo

Kilcavan

1841 Aug 1

Jones

Thomas

Brien

Margo

Kilcavan

1848 Jul 12

Kavanagh

Phelim

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavan

1854 Jun 17

Keating

 Patrick

Kehoe

Margaret

Kilcavan

1840 Sep 22

Kehoe

Patrick

Breen

Biddy

Kilcavan

1841 May ?

Keho

Denis

Hanrick

Mary

Kilcavan

1841 May 7

Kelly

Will

Cousins

Ellen

KIlcavan

1839 Apr 7

Kenny

John

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavan

1864 Nov 6

Kenny

Maurice

Sinnott

Ellen

Kilcavan

1852 Mar 19

Kenny

Patrick

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavan

1849 Feb 26

Kenny

Richard

Cahill

Mary

Kilcavan

1853 Aug 10

Kenny

Richard

Hickey

Mary

Kilcavan

1845 Oct 26

Lacy

Martin

Foster

M.A.

Kilcavan

1851 May 17

Leveston

William

Nowlan

Bridget

Kilcavan

1841 Oct 12

Murphy

Frank

Hikey

Anne

Kilcavan

1841 Feb 14

Neil

John

Hegarty

Betty

Kilcavan

1838 Jun 23

Neill

Sill

Hogan

Jane

Kilcavan

1861 Apr 21

Nolan

James

Kennedy

Mary

Kilcavan

1853 Sep 21

Nowlan

John

Clare

Margaret

Kilcavan

1847 Feb 22

Poor

Michael

??

Catherine

Kilcavan

1852 Sep 30

Rourke

Arthur

Kenny

Mary

Kilcavan

1841 Jan 20

Sinnott

James

Kehoe

Sally

KIlcavan

1832 Dec 16

Somers

James

Kenny

Alice

Kilcavan

1857 May 17

Southern

Larry

Collins

Eliza

Kilcavan

1840 Dec 30

Tumpkin

James

Griffin

Anne

Kilcavan

1856 May 18

Cuff

Martin

Byrne

Elizabeth

Kilcaven

1841 Nov 16

Balance

James

Neil

Judy

Kilcavin

1845 Jan 3

Brennan

James

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavin

1834 Dec 15

Brennan

John

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavin

1837 Jun 25

Brien

William

Kavanagh

Biddy

Kilcavin

1833 Feb 23

Byrne

James

McCann

Anne

Kilcavin

1844 Aug 1

Byrne

John

Doyle

Catherine

Kilcavin

1846 Sep 5

Byrne

John

Behan

Margo

Kilcavin

1844 Jul 25

Byrne

Matt

Murphy

Rose

Kilcavin

1834 May 3

Byrne

Michael

Conran

Anne

Kilcavin

1835 Jan 10

Byrne

Michael

Kenny

Mary

Kilcavin

1835 Jan 29

Byrne

Michael

Kehoe

Betty

KIlcavin

1839 Mar 11

Byrne

Sill

Murphy

Anne

KIlcavin

1857 May 16

Cahill

Moses

Nolan

Ellen

Kilcavin

1849 Jan 17

Carney

James

Doyle

Bridget

Kilcavin

1855 Aug 31

Clare

Farrell

Walker

Mary

KIlcavin

1842 Apr 3

Clare

John

Kavanagh

Johanna

Kilcavin

1834 Jun 17

Collins

Bill

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavin

1850 Dec 9

Collins

John

Doyle

Bes

Kilcavin

1838 Jan 21

Cuff

James

Rooney

Margaret

KIlcavin

1833 Jun 6

Cuff

John

Neal

Mary

Kilcavin

1839 Mar 1

Cuff

Thomas

Dempsey

Sally

Kilcavin

1842 Feb 18

Cuffe

James

Roney

Margo

Kilcavin

1862 Jan 19

Cuffe

Pat

Ailmer

Mary

KIlcavin

1849 Jul 3

Cuffe

Patrick

Bolger

Susan

Kilcavin

1833 Jun 25

Doolin

Thomas

Leary

Ellen

Kilcavin

1842 Jul 31

Doyle

John

Kenny

Cath

Kilcavin

1835 Jan 11

Griffin

George

Carroll

Mary

Kilcavin

1844 Apr 22

Hagarty

John

 Brien

Betty

Kilcavin

1842 Mar 29

Hickey

Patrick

Keane

Dolly

Kilcavin

1842 Jul 10

Hughes

Henry

Keogh

Ann

Kilcavin

1844 Oct 3

Kavanagh

Phelim

Hickey

 Mary

KIlcavin

1852 Jan 20

Keating

Patrick

Kehoe

Margaret

Kilcavin

1850 Jun 10

Kehoe

Edward

Casidy

Catherine

Kilcavin

1835 Feb 11

Kehoe

James

Free

Hana

Kilcavin

1835 Nov 29

Kehoe

John

Rourke

Bet

Kilcavin

1842 Dec 5

Kehoe

Patrick

Breen

Biddy

Kilcavin

1842 Jul 11

Kenny

John

Byrne

Mary

Kilcavin

1851 Dec 11

Kenny

Richard

Hickey

Mary

Kilcavin

1833 Feb 11

Keogh

??

Rourke

Betty

Kilcavin

1838 May 10

Maher

Thomas

Kavana

Betty

Kilcavin

1834 May 25

McGuire

Matt

Doyle

Mary

Kilcavin

1834 Nov 10

McGuire

Michael

Trenary

Anne

Kilcavin

1840 May 24

Murphy

Frank

Hickey

Nancy

Kilcavin

1844 Sep 14

Murphy

John

Collins

Ellen

Kilcavin

1835 May 3

Murphy

Martin

Dunn

Ally

KIlcavin

1837 Dec 3

Murphy

Patrick

Dobbs

Judy

Kilcavin

1835 Mar 19

Nolan

Lawrence

Fox

Cath

Kilcavin

1851 Nov 11

Nowlan

John

Clare

Margaret

Kilcavin

1848 Jan 20

Nowlan

Patrick

Kinselagh

Elizabeth

Kilcavin

1844 Feb 22

Roark

Art

Kenny

Mary

Kilcavin

1841 Oct 12

Roark

Arthur

Kenny

Sally

Kilcavin

1833 Aug 10

Sinnot

John

Keogh

Sally

Kilcavin

1850 Nov 11

Southern

Laurence

Collins

Bess

Kilcavin

1842 Aug 14

Sutherland

Larry

Collins

Eliza

Kilcavin

1850 Sep 22

Synnott

John

Kehoe

Lisa

Kilcavin

1849 Jun 6

Tompkin

James

Griffin

Anne

Kilcavin

1834 Sep 15

Whelan

Patrick

Shannon

Jane

Kilcavin

1851 Feb 13

White

Morgan

Murphy

Judy

Kilcavin

1846 Nov 2

Carthy

John

Simpson

Margo

Kilkaven

 



[i] Fitzwilliam MS. 4944 dated c. 1728-33

[ii] Fitzwilliam MS. 4944 dated c. 1728-33

[iii] Catholic Encyclopedia/Penal Laws/Ireland

[iv] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts, NLI, Dublin

[v] Ms.4909 National Archives , Bishop Street

[vi] John O’Neill, Researcher/Dublin

[vii] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts,  8565 NLI, Dublin

[viii] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts,  8565 NLI, Dublin

[ix] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts,  8565 NLI, Dublin

[x] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts, 8565  NLI, Dublin

[xi] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts,  8565 NLI, Dublin

[xii] Fitzwilliam Manuscripts  6054

[xiii] Fitzwilliam Ms. 6030 dated 1811-1813

[xiv] Provided by John O’Neill, Researcher/Dublin

[xv] Tomacork Baptisms 1832-1911


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